Explain of Information Technology

Information technology was six or seven years ago. I am designing a circuit at Bell Communications Research in the US. There is an I.C. So it became necessary to know which pin of the IC is used. The thick book that contains the IC information is on the back of the top shelf in my room. I stood and took the book off the shelf and opened it to get the ICT information but instead I absent mindedly typed some letters into the computer in front of me. 

I directly downloaded the information regarding pin out of I.C.T using internet. When using that information in circuit design, I suddenly got a little startled and asked myself, what have I done? Information that is within my reach, Can I get that information from a server thousands of miles away? Taking information from a book at hand is the same thing as taking information from a company's server database thousands of miles away? 

It can be said that after this ghostly incident, I personally felt that we, the people of the world, have reached a new stage of civilization. Hearing the word information technology has really made our ears twitch and it can be said that it is touching all the people of the world in one way or another. 

Behind a new type of "revolution" in the world called information technology is a machine and this machine is called computer. This revolution was not only due to computers, but also required more machinery and technology. But it wouldn't have happened if it wasn't for the computer thing. The name computer was once perhaps appropriate because it first stood for compute. 

Now this name of this instrument is no longer appropriate. Without going into the details of the computer, it can be said that it is a tool. A crew driver is a tool that can be used to install or remove screws. Without a crew driver it is very difficult to put on or take off a skew, on the contrary, nothing else can be done with a crew driver except take off or put on a skew. It is the property of the tool, that it is made to do a particular job and that no other job can do it. As such, a broom is a tool, a spoon is a tool. 

The work of sweeping cannot be done with a spoon, Such spoon work cannot be done with a broom. A computer is the only tool that is not designed for a specific task. What can be done with it depends on one's creativity. The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are said to have collected the most scientific data on Earth in the history of mankind. Starting from Earth in 1977, it passed by a planet and collected data about that planet as it passed by and sent it back to Earth. Voyager 1 and 2 were fully controlled by a computer. 

A computer built in 1977 technology at that time was nothing more than a ridiculous toy compared to today's computer. But that ridiculous toy computer took Voyager 1 and 2 perfectly through the interstellar system and out of the solar system. This example is perhaps a good example of the use of computers. There are bad examples too, using computers to commit big crimes in the world these days. 

With the introduction of electronic money exchange, there has been a trend of assigning special numbers for security purposes. The higher the number, the more secure it is. But large numbers are a pain for everyday use so those (PIN) numbers are not very big. In general, it is not easy to predict. So the criminals set up the computer to find those numbers. What is impossible for a human is child's play for a computer. Therefore, billions of dollars are being stolen every day by extracting that secret number of many people. 

This is an example of misdemeanor using computers! Actual examples of computer use are numerous examples outside of these two examples. It is difficult to predict where it will end, and only human creativity can be expected to find its end. Therefore, despite being a helpful device or tool, computer department is neglected at the university level, many students study it. 

Scientists and researchers work for its improvement. Traders used it to do business and people around the world saw civilization emerge at a new level. Without going into any details, if we want to explain the computer, it can be said to have two parts: one is the processor and the other is the memory. The processor computes, Data can be stored temporarily in memory. As time goes by since the first computer was created, on the one hand processors are improving and on the other hand it is possible to add more memory to a processor. 

Computer technology is directly benefiting from advances in electronic technology and roughly doubling the power of computers every few years. No other field of technology can claim such advancements. This has suddenly thrown people into a completely different mindset. Human brains and computer systems are not the same. Computer works with digital signals, here processor and memory are two completely different things. The connections in the human brain are called neural connections. 

There processor and memory are in the same place. Even then, scientists try to compare the human brain with computers and wonder how long it will take for the computer as we know it to reach the same capabilities as the human brain. Given the rate at which computer power is increasing, it is estimated that we will see such a computer within our lifetime. Then the serious question is, if something like that is really created, can a seed of human thought or existence be sown there?

Scientists are still ambivalent about that. Some can say, some can not say! Perhaps one of our future descendants will find the answer to this question. But no one questions the role of computers in our daily lives. The computer is the monitor, key board or CP in front of our eyes. The image of Yu that emerges is not his only form. From cameras or mobile phones to cars, ships or planes, there is no area of ​​technology where it has not made its way. 

What was once almost impossible is now easy. A huge network of computers has been created by connecting all the computers of the world. We haven't seen all of the many things that can be done using this network. What we are all used to seeing is called the Internet. My personal opinion is that the Internet will be one of the most important technologies in the new world. 

The Internet is going through its initial innovation frenzy. There is no doubt that we will see its permanent role after its novelty wears off within the next decade. The people of the world are waiting with curiosity to see what it will contribute to human civilization. Great thinkers of the world have struggled for equal rights for all the people of the world. We imagine that if they were back on Earth now, they would find some solace in the internet.

Many great political leaders of the world, many statesmen, many philosophers have done what the scientists and technicians of the world could not do. The world's wealthiest people now have the same information available to the world's most common people. Even a very common man of the world is protesting now, His anger or joy can now be shared with people all over the world. 

Did anyone ever think about the power of people on earth? Excitement about something new is normal. The same has happened with information technology. Consumerist people are associated with it. Concerned about finances more than necessary. The scientists and technologists who developed it were more concerned with the people who commercialized it than with due respect. 

But all this euphoria will eventually subside, once the eye-popping financial fog clears, we will see the true form of information technology. Many people in the world are eagerly waiting to see it. No one knows what it is. I think that role will be his contribution to the world's knowledge base that has never happened before in the history of the world. Could anyone have ever imagined the great weapons that man now has in his hands to know the unknown?. 7. Fiber Optics People of our country are very familiar with the term “Fiber Optics” even though they do not know the subject “Fiber Optics” very well. 

Almost all countries in the world have connected to the international data stream with fiber optic cables long ago, it took us a long time to do that using submarine cables. When the matter was so simple it was not taken up due to government stupidity. From the last decade, the government is "taking" under the pressure of the people of the country, we were sometimes tired and sometimes disappointed. At last the contact is still in disbelief. 

Our country's internet connection was through Visat. There may have been hundreds of Visats across the country, but now one optical fiber can exchange information equal to millions of Visats. So is it any wonder that we're all a little nervous about fiber optics? The word fiber means system and optics is the science of light, so the word fiber optics is supposed to refer to the science of carrying light through a fine fiber. But in a general sense we mean the technology of sending information through fine glass fibers by fiber optics. 

It differs from other methods of communicating information because it uses light to do the job. Sending information using light is not very unusual. Just a few days ago on a night train I saw a smuggler flash his hand torch light and give a message to his Sangopangos! Sending information using fiber optics is essentially the same thing – sending information by turning light on and off. 

But it is done with incredible speed. While the smuggler can turn his light on or off once a second, the fiber optics laser beam does so more than a billion (ten billion) times a second! Smuggler's torch light goes straight, if there is a wall in front of it, that light is blocked, it cannot penetrate the wall. 

In fiber optics it goes through fine glass fibers, That glass fiber can pass through walls, houses and even oceans. The fine glass fiber used in this process of sending information is called optical fiber. The scientist who first hypothesized that optical fibers could be used to transmit information was undoubtedly a true visionary. 

When we see glass in a window or picture frame, we think of it as a transparent object. It is transparent because the glass is thin. If we take a glass rod we will discover that glass is not really transparent. If light is sent through ordinary glass, ninety-nine percent of it is absorbed after traveling only twenty meters. 

Only a true clairvoyant could have predicted that such a thing could one day send information hundreds of kilometers away. Scientists and technicians started working on making glass transparent to transmit information and did an incredible job. 

They made the glass so transparent that ninety-nine percent of the light had to travel two hundred kilometers instead of twenty meters. People lose themselves in happiness when they can double or double something. As such, this improvement is ten thousand times! There are not many such examples in the history of the world. 

After making the glass transparent, before sending the light through it, one more question comes that is why the light will be trapped inside this transparent glass? Light travels in a straight line, if the glass fibers are slightly bent, the light will hit the glass wall and go out. If the light is to be taken from one place to another, it must be trapped inside the glass fiber, how will it be done? Actually this is not very difficult, a process called total internal reflection makes this task very easy. This is illustrated in Figure 7.2. Light bends when passing from one medium to another. 7. The first part of figure 2 shows that for glass and air. Some of it passes through the glass into the air and some is reflected back into the glass itself. 

Now if the light beam can somehow be bent further, it will be seen that beyond a certain angle no light can pass through the glass into the air, all of it comes back inside the glass. Total internal reflection is when the light is completely reflected back while passing from a denser medium to a lighter medium. Because light is trapped in the optical fiber, light cannot escape even when it is abnormally transparent. Optical fibers are finely tuned to utilize total internal reflection of light. 

Many may not know that optical fiber is actually finer than hair! Because this delicate glass is so fragile, it has a plastic coating over it and may appear threadbare. However, to use it, various other coatings are applied to it and finally it takes the shape of the electric wire of a table lamp. Optical fibers that are taken underground or under the sea are definitely monster cables. 

It has various types of coating inside and outside, Hardened steel sheets are inserted inside to strengthen the entire cable. There are two parts to the glass fiber used in fiber optics. The inner part is the car or core and the outer part is the clad or outer covering. The contrast of the core is always greater than that of the cladding so that the light can be trapped in the optical fiber by total internal reflection. Two types of fibers are used in fiber optics communications to exchange information. One type of fiber with a core of 50 microns is called multimode fiber. Another type of fiber has a much smaller core, around 10 microns, called single mode fiber. Both fiber types are brought closer to 125 microns by covering the core with a clad. 

Figure 7.4 shows these two types of fibers. Multimode fiber allows light to travel in different ways. It can but in single mode fiber it can only go one way, The fibers are named for this reason. Single mode fiber should always be used if long distances are to be traveled and data exchange is high. Bangladesh Railway fibers are single mode. The submarine cable coming to Bangladesh through the seabed is also single mode. Single mode, accessories are complex and cost is high. 

Multimode fiber can be used for shorter distances. Multimode fiber has been used while building the network of our Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, the campus is small and the distance is not long – that is one factor, the strain of money as a public university – is another factor. So far we have only talked about glass fibers or optical fibers. No mention of what kind of light is sent through it. 

Since talking about light, a very natural question is what is the color of light? Red blue yellow or something else? Interestingly, there is no answer to this question. That's because the light used in fiber optic communication is not visible light, how can the color be what we can't see with our eyes? The matter can be said a little more clearly. Light is actually electromagnetic waves. Any wave has a wavelength, so electromagnetic waves also have a wavelength. 

These wavelengths are unspecified, ranging from tiny to hundreds of kilometers long. We only see these electromagnetic waves when their wavelength is between 0.4 and 0.7 microns, and never at other times. 7. Figure 5 shows what electromagnetic waves are called for different wavelengths. Infrared light, which is next to visible light, is used in fiber optic communications. The range of infrared light is quite large, not all of it can be used, the small part from wavelength 1.3 to 1.5 microns is used. In fiber optics communications, infrared light is transmitted by lasers. 

Laser technology slowly developed in the 1970s. One day laser and fiber on the other hand these two technologies were developed simultaneously which opened the door of information sharing to the world which will always be a milestone in the history of technology. And the light of possibility that came through that open door changed the world for life. Particles as small as 5 microns are used. In fiber optics communications, infrared light is transmitted by lasers. Laser technology slowly developed in the 1970s. 

One day laser and fiber on the other hand these two technologies were developed simultaneously which opened the door of information sharing to the world which will always be a milestone in the history of technology. And the light of possibility that came through that open door changed the world for life.

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